The territory of today's Nitra region and its center, the ancient city of Nitra, played in the history of the Slovak nation and Slovakia, in its culture and education extremely important role. On important transport position of Nitra region show corridors that passed through the area in the distant past.
Along the river Nitra was formed the old trade route (i.e. Poland), which was used already in the pre-Roman period - connected the Danube with the Baltic region. In Nitra, it was crossing the trade route connecting the Vienna and Bratislava with Central and Eastern Slovak. In the second half of the 13th century the big importance gained the route named Czech route, which went from Esztergom through Ňárhíd market settlement (the forerunner of Nové Zámky) to Trnava and Skalica na Morave. The territory development axis along the river Nitra allowed the localization of industry. The region has an important geopolitical location - is part of international development axes. It lies in the southeast European developing axis, which was defined under the program of spatial development of Europe over the next fifty years, known as Red Octopus. This development arm runs along the route Stuttgart - Ulm - Munich - Salzburg / Linz - Vienna - Bratislava - Budapest - Belgrade. In terms of cross-border cooperation the Nitra Region is part of Euroregion Váh - Dunaj – Ipeľ. In the east also the Ipeľ Euroregion extends into it.
The Nitra region is located in the southwestern part of Slovakia, while in the south it borders with Hungary (the counties Györ - Moson - Sopron, Komárom - Esztergom and Pest). On the east is adjacent to the Banská Bystrica region (county of Veľký Krtíš, Krupina, Banská Štiavnica and Žarnovica) on the north is adjacent to the Trenčín Region (with county Nové Mesto nad Váhom, Bánovce nad Bebravou and Partizánske). On the west is adjacent to Trnava Region (with county Dunajska Streda, Galanta, Hlohovec and Piešťany). Nitra region has a shape of elongated meridian in a north-south direction.
Nitra region is located at the intersection of the northern spurs of the lowland landscape of the Pannonian basin formed by Danubian Plain and the southwestern spurs of the mountainous landscape of the Western Carpathians, consisted of mountains of the Fatra-Tatra region, the region Matransko-slanska and the Slovak Central Mountains. Danube lowland forms the bulk of the region. Its southern part, Danubian flat, is formed by the river's accumulations, often smothered by silt of drifting sand. The northern part of the lowland consists of Danubian Hills. River Nitra, River Žitava, River Hron and River Ipeľ created sub-hills due to their activities, that are named after them. Downs are covered by loess and loess loam on which very fertile soils have developed.. From the north the area of the region is bordered by mountains Považský Inovec and Tribeč formed by schists, granodiorites, diorites, limestones, dolomites. On the northeast and east there are volcanic mountains Pohronský Inovec and Štiavnické hills, made up mainly by rhyolites and rhyodacites and juts of Krupina plain from volcanic tuffs and agglomerates. Isolated mountains in the southeast region are mountains Burda, which are composed of andesites and its pyroclastic. The highest point of the territory of the Nitra region is located in the mountains Považský Inovec in the northwest area - it is Panska Javorina Hill (942.6 masl.) in the village Podhradie, Topoľčany county. The lowest point of the region (100.1 masl.) is located in the southwest of Danube lowland in the village Vlčany, which borders with the village Neded, county of Šaľa. Natural conditions and intensive agricultural production placed the Nitra region between the breadbaskets of Slovakia.
Agricultural production is focused on crop production, which is represented mainly by growing wheat, barley, maize and sugar beet, sunflower and vegetables. Nitra region is also known for growing grapevines. There are two important areas - Nitra wine region and the Danube wine region. In livestock production, the Region focuses on rearing the farmyard cattle, pigs and poultry. In the area of Levice is developed fish farming. Topoľčianky and New Tekov are known for horse breeding.
Čukan, J. – Dubcová, A. – Kramáreková, H. – Ruttkay, A. – Števko, A. 2013. ŠŤASTNÝ KRAJ/A HAPPY REGION. Topoľčany : Tristanpress, 2013. 3. vydanie. 156 s. ISBN 978-80-89173-40-2
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